Model 6 examines the final two hypotheses Hypotheses 8a and 8b : religious diversity will shape the relationship between Islamic religious affiliation and the odds of reporting sex outside of marriage. The interaction between Muslim affiliation and religious diversity is not significant, offering little support for either of the last two hypotheses. Table 3 examines the influence of religion on the odds of extramarital sex.
We hypothesized that married Muslims would be less likely than married Christians and Jews to report extramarital sex Hypothesis 4. In Model 1 of Table 3 we find corroboration for this hypothesis: the odds of married Muslims reporting extramarital sex are 45 percent lower than the odds for Christians. In a separate analysis, we switched the comparison group to Muslims and found that married Muslims are less likely than all other major religious groups, except Buddhists, to report extramarital sex.
This finding shows that Muslims are distinct from almost all other religious groups in being less likely to report sex outside of marriage. Table 3.
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In a separate analysis, we produced predicted probabilities of reporting extramarital sex by religious affiliation for married females who live in a rural area, are not currently working, and have been assigned the mean on all other variables in Model 1 of Table 3. The probability of reporting extramarital sex in the past 12 months is lowest for married Muslim women.
Of the major religious groups, Jews. Model 1 also shows that older people and women are less likely to report extramarital sex.
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Conversely, married people in urban areas have higher odds of reporting extramarital sex than do people living in rural areas. At the country level later years of data collection are associated with higher odds of reporting extramarital sex, and married people and individuals in more populous nations have lower odds of reporting extramarital sex.
Model 2 includes the percentage Muslim to test the hypothesis that as the percentage Muslim increases, married residents will be less likely to report extramarital sex Hypothesis 6a. The coefficient for percentage Muslim is not significant, providing little support for this hypothesis.
Model 3 includes the interaction between Muslim affiliation and percentage Muslim to test the hypothesis that as the percentage Muslim increases, married Muslims will be less likely to report extramarital sex Hypothesis 6b. The interaction term is not significant, offering little support for this hypothesis. Finally, Model 5 includes the interaction between Muslim religious affiliation and religious diversity to test the final hypotheses Hypotheses 8a and 8b : religious diversity will shape the relationship between Islamic religious affiliation and reports of sex outside of marriage.
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The interaction between Muslim affiliation and religious diversity is not significant, offering little support for either of these hypotheses. This study investigated effects of micro religious beliefs and macro religious cultures on reports of extramarital and premarital sex.
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We found that ever married Muslims and Hindus were less likely than ever married Christians and Jews to report premarital sex. Married Muslims were also less likely than all other adherents of major religions, except Buddhists, to report extramarital sex.
Most major religions discourage sex outside of marriage, but some religions appear more effective than others at curtailing this behavior. Some cross-national studies have found that Muslims report more conservative attitudes about sex than do most other religious adherents Adamczyk and Pitt ; Finke and Adamczyk ; Scheepers et al. Much less research compares Hindus to Christians and Jews. The current study is the first to show that across the developing world, ever married Muslims and Hindus appear less likely than Jews and Christians to report premarital sex.
Because Muslims and Christians can be found in a number of different countries, there is a body of research on attitudinal differences between these groups. Much less research has been done on Buddhists. The few studies that compare Buddhists to affiliates of other religions report inconsistent findings in their sex-related attitudes Adamczyk and Pitt ; Finke and Adamczyk and behaviors de Visser et al. Somewhat consistent with these ideas, we found that Buddhists were significantly more likely than Muslims, Christians, Hindus, and people of traditional faiths to report premarital sex.
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However, they did not differ from Jews in their odds of reporting premarital sex, nor did they differ from other religious groups even Muslims in their reports of extramarital sex. Countries are typically dominated by a single religion; therefore, researchers tend to focus on differences within a single religious group.
Because vast differences exist among adherents within the same religion, it was unclear whether we would find significant differences between adherents of different world religions. Moreover, these divisions extend beyond individual believers to entire nations where the majority of residents are Muslim. Our study makes some important theoretical contributions. Our findings provide evidence for the Durkheimian idea that effects of religious culture are not reducible to the collective impact of personal religious affiliations.
In theorizing the influence of various religious contexts, it is important to understand whether they are reducible to micro-level interactions or have a sui generis effect. Collins , advocates micro translating macro events.
vyfevacoda.ga In contrast to this perspective, Durkheim  ,  sees societal forces, such as the collective conscience, as sui generis. When enough support exists for certain cultural values, individual preferences can lead to macro-level changes Coleman that may manifest in laws, policies, and restrictions. For example, shortly after the United States began to occupy Afghanistan, women were granted the right to vote.
Nevertheless, we found that these restrictions have little influence on behavior. This study also tested hypotheses about religious diversity. We thought that Muslims would have the most conservative sexual behaviors and religious diversity would have the greatest influence on them.
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Yet, religious diversity did not alter the relationship between Islamic affiliation and religious diversity. Indeed, religious diversity did not alter the relationship between any of the major religious affiliations and the outcomes examined, which raises the question: Why did religious diversity have no effect? Researchers studying religious diversity have focused on how it shapes religious commitment, which the DHS did not measure.
It could be that religious diversity primarily influences religious commitment and does not have much of an influence on adherence to religious behavioral proscriptions. Additionally, most studies on religious diversity focus on different brands of Christianity in the United States and Europe and not on different major religions e. Finally, we were able to analyze data from only 31 developing countries, which may not have provided the power needed to detect a weaker, yet theoretically important, effect of religious diversity. The data for this study were drawn from a very large sample of individuals in nations that vary substantially in their proportion Muslim.
The majority of research on national religious contexts relies almost exclusively on either the World Values Survey or the International Social Survey Program Adamczyk and Pitt ; Finke and Adamczyk ; Scheepers et al. Neither of these studies includes measures of sexual behaviors, and only the World Values Survey includes less developed and Muslim-majority countries. The DHS provides information on sexual behaviors, and its website provides aggregate country-level statistics, but it does not provide a fully merged individual-level data file.
Creating a complete dataset with all countries from a specific survey period is labor intensive, which may be why relatively few studies examine country contextual influences with DHS data. While the DHS may be the only publicly available dataset that includes developing countries and measures of sexual behaviors, it has limitations. The questionnaire is lengthy and researchers have found it may lead to recall bias Boerma and Sommerfelt Indeed, researchers found recall bias on child morality in the DHS Manesh et al.
Additionally, the only religion question it includes is about religious affiliation. Much of the research on religion and sex-related attitudes includes measures of religious affiliation and saliency of religious belief e. There is good reason to believe that religiously active Muslims and people living in nations with a high proportion of practicing Muslims will be particularly likely to abide by religious proscriptions.
Hence, the micro- and macro-level effects of Islam in this study are likely underestimated. Another limitation is that the available sample did not include Middle Eastern countries, such as Libya, Tunisia, and Egypt, which are economically stable and part of the Arab Spring. We therefore do not know if these countries, too, would display the Islamic contextual effect we found.
Even the nations we examined have many differences in their level of development, political stability, laws, and the extent to which Islam has been formally and informally incorporated into their societies. We considered several other country-level influences and included ones that were statistically significant or theoretically important. With a larger set of countries or better measures, other country-level variables may also be significant. This cross-national multilevel study is one of the first to look at micro- and macro-level effects of religion on sex outside of marriage. For assessing the influence of culture more generally, there are some benefits to focusing on religion as opposed to other cultural characteristics.
Religion is based on belief in gods who make demands that are outlined in systematic sets of writings that provide guidelines for actions Stark and Finke Because religious proscriptions are stated in teachings and routinely affirmed, religious beliefs, behaviors, and affiliation are often associated with actions. Additionally, religions make and enforce demands for a wide range of behaviors. This study focused on sexual behaviors, but similar religious divisions likely exist for other behaviors.